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 广州通用教育 > 成人高考 > 成考指南 > 成人高考英语答题技巧:阅读理解

成人高考英语答题技巧:阅读理解

成人高考英语答题技巧:阅读理解

   关于作者的态度类问题(Attitude)

  阅读理解的最后一题常常提问在作者对文章中某一问题的态度(Attitude)、全文的基调(Tone)、文章的出处(Source)及对文章前后接续内容的判断等。

  关于态度或基调(Attitude/Tone)类题的回答应从篇章的体裁着手,一般来说,在说明文中作者的态度是客观的(objective)或中立的(neutral);而在议论文中,作者的观点才会显得多种多样,常风的选项有:

  (1)positive(积极的)

  (2)negative(消极的)

  (3)neutral(中立的)

  (4)approval(赞成的)

  (5)disapproval(不赞成的)

  (6)indifferent(漠不关心的)

  (7)sarcastic(讽刺的)

  (8)critical(批评的)

  (9)optimistic(乐观的)

  (10)pessimistic(悲观的)

  问题的几种提问方式:

  (1)What's the writer's attitude to…

  (2)What's the tone of the passage?

  (3)The author's view is_______

  有文章中,作者观点明确,文章基调清楚,而有的文章中,作者仅仅暗示对某一问题的态度和观点,需要阅读时仔细琢磨。解答这类问题时,首先应请注意篇章中起连接手段作用的那些词语;其次应注意有些表明作者观点词汇,如形容词、动词等。

  对文章的出处及文章前后接续内容判断等可从全篇着手,从个别句子或词汇找线索进行判断。

  Example:

  I am not so nave,however,as to believe that is responsible for this unfortunate situation of the American woman. I am not a feminist,but I am an individualist.I do not believe there is any important difference between men and women.certainly not as much as there may be between one woman and another or one man and an-other.There are plenty of women and men,for that matter who would be completely fulfilled in being allowed to be as lazy as possible.If someone will ensconce them in a pleasant home and pay their bills,they ask no more of life. It is quite all right for these men and women to live thus so long as fools can be found who will pay so much for nothing much in return.Gigolos,male and female,are to be found in every class and in the best of homes.But when a man does not want to be a gigolo,he has the freedom to go out and work and create as well as he can.But a woman has not.Even if her individual husband lets her,tradition in society is against her.In this passage the author looks on the situation of women with an attitude of.

  A)amusement

  B)indifference

  C)disapproval

  D)condemnation

  此篇文章中,作者对待这一问题的态度十分明确、强硬(如用语I am not 等等),因此只参在选项C)和D)中选择。而从文章中的“gigolos”,"fools"等词可看出作者不仅不赞成而且态度更甚。所以,选项C)程度还不够,这一题的正确答案是D)

  (4)The writer's attitude of,this passage is apparently_________

  (5)The author suggests that_________

  (6)According to author__________

  有文章中,作者观点明确,文章基调清楚,而有的文章中,作者仅仅暗示对某一问题的态度和观点,需要阅读时仔细琢磨。解答这类问题时,首先应请注意篇章中起连接手段作用的那些词语;其次应注意有些表明作者观点词汇,如形容词、动词等。

  对文章的出处及文章前后接续内容判断等可从全篇着手,从个别句子或词汇找线索进行判断。

  Example:

  I am not so nave,however,as to believe that is responsible for this unfortunate situation of the American woman. I am not a feminist,but I am an individualist.I do not believe there is any important difference between men and women.certainly not as much as there may be between one woman and another or one man and an-other.There are plenty of women and men,for that matter who would be completely fulfilled in being allowed to be as lazy as possible.If someone will ensconce them in a pleasant home and pay their bills,they ask no more of life. It is quite all right for these men and women to live thus so long as fools can be found who will pay so much for nothing much in return.Gigolos,male and female,are to be found in every class and in the best of homes.But when a man does not want to be a gigolo,he has the freedom to go out and work and create as well as he can.But a woman has not.Even if her individual husband lets her,tradition in society is against her.In this passage the author looks on the situation of women with an attitude of.

  A)amusement

  B)indifference

  C)disapproval

  D)condemnation

  此篇文章中,作者对待这一问题的态度十分明确、强硬(如用语I am not 等等),因此只参在选项C)和D)中选择。而从文章中的“gigolos”,"fools"等词可看出作者不仅不赞成而且态度更甚。所以,选项C)程度还不够,这一题的正确答案是D)

    关于词汇问题(Vocabulary)

  词汇(Vocabulary)是三级阅读理解测试中非常重要的一项。词汇类其实也是就细节进行提问,所不同的是这是唯一关于词或词组的练习项目,词汇题往往要求对文章中的某个单词、短语甚至句子等找出近义词或最合适的解释。解答这类题需要学生拥有较大的词汇量。可是,单词记忆似乎已成为学生普遍反映最头痛的难题。阅读理解中词汇类问题的常见提问方式有下列几种:

  (1)According to the author,the word“…”means_______.

  (2)Which of the following is nearest in meaning to“…”?

  (3)The term“……”in paragraph…can be best replaced by…

  (4)What's the meaning of“…”in line…of paragraph…

  (5)As used in the line…,the word“…”refers to_______.

  一般来说,在文章的阅读中解决释义的最邓办法是猜测词义。猜测词义也需要一定的技巧,可以通过:1)上下文间意义的联系;2)同义关系;反义关系;3)词的定义;4)对词的解释和举例;5)构词法知识猜测词义。

  1、利用上下文词语意义的互相联系猜测词义

  Example:

  The fishermen make their canoes from tree trunks.They go from island to island in these light marrow boats and collect turtles' eggs.

  我们从上下文中可以得出以下信息:“canoes”是一种渔夫用树木做的、来回于岛屿之间的、轻狭长的、类似于小船之类的东西。尽管我们可能还不能肯定它的确切解释,但这一生词已经不会影响我们的阅读和理解了。

  Example:

  Jogging has become very popular in some countries,It is believed to be a good exercise for old people.

  “Jogging”的意思通过“a good exercise for old people ”可以推断出是一种适合老年人的剧烈的运动方式。

  2、利用文章中词与词的同义和反义关系猜测词义

  Example:

  If you happened to be sitting in the woods outside the city,you might have witnessed a strange sight.You would have seen a very proud looking man riding along horseback,saying something.

  在文章中可以很容易地判断出“witnesss”的同义关系词是“seen”,因此“witness”就是看见的意思。

  Example:

  In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid,and the summers hot and dry.

  显然,冬天和夏天的气候是截然相反的,它们的修饰词的意思也应该截然相反。“cold”与“hot”对应,“humid”与“dry”对应。因此,“humid”是“潮湿”的意思。

  3、利用文章中对词的定义猜测词义

  Example:

  Such experiences are not unusual for the amateur conchologists,people who collect shells.

  Conchologists的意思可以根据该词后面的同位解释“people who collect shells”理解为收集贝壳的人或贝壳收藏家。

  Example:

  Jack is now a florist,who keeps a shop for selling flowers in our district.

  “florist”的意思就是其后定语从句“who keeps a shop for selling flowers”所描述的拥有一家专门卖花的商店的人,即“花店主”。

  4、利用文章中对词的举例及解释猜测词义

  Example:

  Today young couples who are just starting their households of ten spend lots of their money on appliances,for instance,washing machines,refrigerators and color TVs.

  通过所举的例子(washing machines,refrigerators and color TVs)

  可以看出,“appliances”应是这些名词的总称,即“家用电器”。

  Example:

  Finally the enemy surrendered.They threw down their weapons and walked out of the home with their hands over their heads.

  通过后一句对“surrendered”的解释:扔掉武器(throw down their weapons),举起双手(with their hands over heads)可知其意是“投降”。

  5、利用构词法知识(前缀和后缀)猜测词义

  Example:

  They overestimate the interviewee's ability and asked him many difficult questions.

  “estimate”是“估计”的意思,“over-”是前缀,意为“过分,过度,超过”等,因此“overestimate”就是“高估”的意思。

  Example:

  We were told that ours was the most spacious room in the hotel .That was why we had to pay so much for it.

  “spacious”是由“space”(名词,空间)+“ious”(形容词后缀变化而来的,因此,可猜测其词义为“宽敞”。)

  各种各样的前、后缀可以构成名词、形容词、动词、副词等,这些词缀需要平时不断地积累和记忆。掌握构词法知识是扩大词汇量和猜测生词词义的最佳办法。

    关于推理性问题(Inference)

  推理性问题与细节性问题相似,也是对文章具体内容的判断。但推理不但要求掌握文章所表达的字面含义,还要掌握一定的逻辑判断能力及写作技巧知识,从文章表面推出更深层含义,这部分往往出题分量大,难度大,出错也最多,归根结底还是对文章内容没有做到真正的理解和掌握。

  Inference类问题主要包括Significance和Communication Techniques两大类。

  1、Significance

  文字表面往往没有明显反映作者的全部意图,有些含义需要读者从字里行间去体会,靠自己的逻辑推理能力去判断,从上下文的联贯及文中有关部分的暗示去明析作者隐含的意思。这类问题的命题方式有:

  (1)The writer implies but not directly states that__________.

  (2)It can be inferred from the passage that_________.

  (3)The author strongly suggests that__________.

  (4)It can be concluded from the passage that________.

  (5)The passage is intended to__________.

  (6)The writer indicates that__________.

  Example:

  Nursing at Beth Israel Hospital produces the best patient care possible.If we were to solve the nursing shortage,hospital administration and doctors everywher would do well to follow Beth Israel's example.

  At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health ac-count that covers everything from his medical history to his emotion-al state.Then she writes a care plan centered on the patient's illness but which also includes everything else that is necessary.

  The primary nurse stays with the patient through his hospitalization,keeping track with his progress and seeking further advice from his doctor.If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment,it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor.What the doctor at Beth Israel has in the primary nurse is a true colleague.

  Nursing at Beth Israel also involves a decentralized(分散的)nursing administration;every floor,every unit is a self-contained organization.There are nurse managers instead of head nurses,in addition to their medical duties they do all their own hiring and dismissing,employee advising,and they make salary recommendations.Each unit's nurse decide among themselves who will work what shifts and when.

  Beth Israel's nurse-in-chief ranks as an equal with other vice presidents of the hospital. She also is a member of the Medical Executive Committee,which in most hospitals includes only doctors.

  It can be inferred from the passage that__________.

  A)compared with other hospitals nurses at Beth Israel Hospital are more patient

  B)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries

  C)in most hospitals nurses get low salaries

  D)compared with other hospitals nurses have to work longer hour at Beth Israel Hospital

  本题要求考生判断4个选项中哪一个是根据文章可以推断出的结论,要求考生根据文章内容作出合理的推断。从本题所提供的4个选项来看,文章并未谈及护士的“耐心”(A);也未谈及护士的“工资待遇”(C),只是说到护士的工资提升要由各科室推荐;更未涉及护士的“工作时间长短”(D)),文章的第一段最后一句才是得出正确答案的依据,这句的意思是:“如果我们确要解决护理工作不足的问题,那么各地医院的行政部门和医生最好还是效法一下Beth Israel医院”,主句的虚拟语气也说明这一点:迄今为止还未做到。由此可以推断:①护理不充分是一个应该解决的问题;②这个问题普遍存在,否则就没有必要要求各地医院行政部门和医生效法这家医院的做法。因此本题的正确答案为B),本题属于局域型问题的间接性问题,这类问题是考生出错最多的题型。在做这类问题时,切忌从篇章的个别句子中寻找答案,而应把目光放在全篇的理解上:作者写这篇文章的目的是什么,针对什么问题,如何解决等。有许多考生可能都有这种体验:有的问题,第一遍阅读时做对了,第二遍再细读后,又改错了。这就是因为他们在读第二遍时注意了对篇章的个别句于的推敲,而忽视了整篇文章的大意。

  2、Communication Techniques

  文章中的每一句话都有它的作用和目的,都是为作者的写作而服务的。有的是下层意思的铺垫,有的是上旬话的结果,互相衬托,互相联系。四级阅读中常常就技巧性问题提问,测试读者对文章是否正确理解。这类题的命题方式有:

  (1)The fact...is mentioned by the author to show_________.

  (2)The author achieves his purpose by depending mainly upon.

  (3)The writer talks about...in order io_________ .

  (4)In discussing...the author_________.

  (5)The author's statement about...is a...for...

  Example:

  If women are mercilessly exploited year after year,they have only themselves to blame. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion,they are al-ways taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores.Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of the change of fashion.When you come to think of it,only a woman is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear.Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste.Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replac clothes that have hardly been worn.Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way,waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Skirts are lengthened or shortened,necklines are lowered or raised,and so on.

  No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes any thing really important to society.Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth,comfort and durability.They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort,as long as they look right.There can hardly be a man who hasn't at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day,or delicately picking her way through deep snow in high- heeled shoes.

  When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion,the conclusions to be drawn are obvious.Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes,one wonders,reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability?Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers.Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability?That is for you to decide.To the writer,the fact that women alter their old-fashioned dresses is seen as_________.

  A)a waste of money

  B)waste of time

  C)an expression of taste

  本题问题是:女士们把过了时的衣服改来改去,在作者看来是“浪费金钱”(A));是“(女士对服装的)喜好(品味)的表现”(C));是“(女士们)创造性的表现”(D));还是(B))所说的“浪费时间”。根据第二段所说的“waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have.”(Para.2,Line 4——5,答案应选B)

   关于细节性问题(Suppporting Details)

  细节性问题是关于Supporting Details类的问题,通过Skimming找出主题后,应进一步掌握阐述和发展主题的主要事实,或按要求找出特定细节。在回答此类问题时,应采用查读法(Scanning),因为这些具体内容(Detai1s)是用来说明、论证或分析文章中心的。这类题目常以“WH-”形式来提问,如who,what,when,wher,why及how等形式。这些问题的表达常不采用文章中的原话提问,而是使用同义词语等,因此,在选择答案前应首先看准题于,看清问题所问究竟;然后,在查读时注意寻找与题目相关的关键词语;最后,在充分理解原文、原题的基础上确定正确答案。

  当然,这类细节性问题所涉及的面是很广的。有的涉及数字计算,如问时间、距离、次数、数量等,认真计算后方可选定正确答案;有的涉及正误判断,要先看选项,根据选项提供的线索,寻视文中相应部分,最后在题中选出肯定答案;还有的寻问事实、原因、结果、目的等。总之,做细节题切忌通过自己对某类知识的主观了解和认识做出想像判断,一定要紧扣文章内容,不可随心所欲。

  细节类问题的命题方式有以下几种:

  (1)Which of the following is NOT true according to the information in the passage?

  (2)Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

  (3)What is the example of...as described in the passage?

  (4)The author mentions all of the following except...

  (5)The reason for...is...

  (6)The author states that...

  (7)According to the passage,when(wher,why,how,who,etc.)……

  Example:

  Just seven years ago,the Jarvik-7 artificial heart was being cheered as the model of human creativeness.The sight of Barney Clark-alive and conscious after trading his diseased heart for met-al-and-plastic pump -convinced the press,the public and many doctors that the future had arrived.It hadn't.After monitoring production of the Jarvik-7,and reviewing its effects on the 150 or so patients(most of whom got the device as a temporary measure)the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger lives than to save them.Last week the agency cancelled its earlier approval,effectively banning(禁止)the device.

  The recall may hurt Symbion Inc,maker of the Jarvik-7,but it won't end the request for an artificial heart.One problem with the banned model is that the tubes connecting it to an external power source created a passage infection.Inventors are now working on new devices that would be fully placed,along with a tiny power pack,in the patient's chest.The first sample products aren't expected for another 10 or 20 years.But some people are already worrying that they'11 work- and that America's overextended healthcare programs Will lose a precious $ 2.5 billion to $ 5 billion a year providing them for a relatively few dying patients. If such expenditures(开支)cut into funding for more basic care,the net effect could actually be a decline in the nation’s health. According to the passage the Jarvik-7 artificial heart proved to be________.

  A)a technical failure

  B)a technical wonder

  C)a good life-saver

  D)an effective means to treat heart disease

  本题是考核学生根据止下文全面理解和进行正确判断的能力,问的是本文论述的Jarvik-7人造心脏性能和效果到底如何。文章一开头说Jarvik-7是一大技术成就,但文章说到:…the U.S. Food and Drug Administration concluded that the machine was doing more to endanger lives than to save them(Line -7-9)。后面又提到:Last week the agency canceled its earlier approval,effectively banning the device.这两句话提供了这个问题的答案。因此,答案:

  The new models of artificial hearts are expected_______.

  A)to have a working life of 10 or 20 years

  B)to be set fully in the patient's chest

  C)to be equipped with an external power source

  D)to create a new passage for infection

  本题是考核正确理解事实细节的能力。选项已的意思与文章中第二段第三句,即“Inventors are now working…in the patient's chest.”的意思符合,因此选项B)是答案。



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Posted @ 2017/7/20 14:43:41  阅读( 842)  评论( 0)  
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